How They Do It...
1. Idea Sketch
Employed at a personal level to quickly externalize thoughts using simple line-work. Also known as Thumbnail, Thinking or Napkin Sketch.
2. Study Sketch
Used to investigate appearance, proportion and scale in greater detail than an Idea Sketch. Often supported by the loose application of tone/color.
3. Referential Sketch
Used to record images of products, objects, living creatures of any relevant observations for future reference or as a metaphor.
4. Memory Sketch
Helps expand thoughts during the design process using mind maps, notes and annotations.
5. Coded Sketch
Informal coded representation that categorises information to demonstrate an underlying principle or scheme.
6. Information Sketch
Quickly and effectively communicates features through the use of annotation and supporting graphics. Also known as Explanatory or Talking Sketch.
7. Sketch rendering
Clearly defined proposal produced by controlled sketching and use of color/tone to enhance detail and realism. Also known as First Concept.
8. Prescriptive Sketch
Informal sketch for the exploration of technical details such as mechanisms, manufacturing, materials and dimensions.
9. Scenario & Storyboard
Describes interactions between user and product, sometimes in an appropriate context.
10. Layout Rendering
Defines the product, proposals as a third angle orthographic projection with precise line and color.
11. Presentation rendering
Contains a high level of realism to fully define product appearance as a perspective view. Particularly useful for decision making by non-designers.
Schematic representation of the operating principle of relationship between components. Also knows as a Schematic or Diagrammatic Drawing.
13. Perspective drawing
Descriptive three-quarter view produced using a perspective drawing technique. Created using line only without the application of color or tone.
14. Gen. Arrangement Drawing
Exterior view all components using line only and with sufficient detail to produce an Appearance Model if required. Usually drawn in third angle projection.
15. Detail Drawing
Contains detail of components for the manufacturing product. Also known as Technical, Production or Construction Drawing.
16. Technical Illustration
Communicates technical detail with a high degree of realism that is sometimes supported with symbols. Includes Exploded views.
17. Sketch Model
Informal, relatively low definition 3D model that captures as the key characteristics of form. Also known as a Foam Model for 3D Sketch.
18. Design Development Model
Simple mock-up used to explore and visualize the relationships between components, cavities, interfaces, and structures. Usually produced using CAD.
19. Functional Model
Captures the key functional features and underlying operating principles. Has limited or no association with the product's final appearance.
20. Operational Model
Communicates how the product is used with the potential ergonomic evaluation.
21. Appearance Model
Accurate physical representation of product appearance. Also known as a Block Model as it tends not to contain any working parts.
22. Assembly Model
Enables the evaluation and development of the methods and tools required to assemble products components.
23. Production Model
Used to evaluate and develop the location and fit a of individual components and sub-assemblies.
24. Service Model
Supports the development and demonstration of how a product is services and maintained.
25. Experimental Prototype
Refined prototype that accurately models physical components to enable the collection of performance data for further development.
26. Alpha Prototype
Bring together key elements of appearance and functions for the first time. Uses of simulates production materials.
27. Beta Prototype
A refined evolution of an Alpha Prototype used to evaluate ongoing design changes in preparation for the final specification of all components.
28. Systems Prototype
Integrates components specified for the production item without consideration of the appearance. used to evaluate electronic and mechanical performance.
29. Final Hardware Prototype
Developed from the Systems Prototype as a final representation of the product's functional elements.
30. Off-Tool Component
Product using the tooling and materials intended for production to enable the evaluation of material properties and appearance of components.
31. Appearance Prototype
Highly detailed representation that combines functionality with exact product appearance. Uses or simulates production materials.
32. Pre-Production Prototype
Final prototype produced using production components. Manufactures in small volumes for testing prior to full scale production.
Dr. Mark Evans, Loughborough Design School, UK, with support from IDSA