How They Do It...

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1. Idea Sketch

Employed at a personal level to quickly externalize thoughts using simple line-work. Also known as Thumbnail, Thinking or Napkin Sketch.

2. Study Sketch

Used to investigate appearance, proportion and scale in greater detail than an Idea Sketch. Often supported by the loose application of tone/color.

3. Referential Sketch

Used to record images of products, objects, living creatures of any relevant observations for future reference or as a metaphor.

4. Memory Sketch

Helps expand thoughts during the design process using mind maps, notes and annotations.

5. Coded Sketch

Informal coded representation that categorises information to demonstrate an underlying principle or scheme.

6. Information Sketch

Quickly and effectively communicates features through the use of annotation and supporting graphics. Also known as Explanatory or Talking Sketch.

7. Sketch rendering

Clearly defined proposal produced by controlled sketching and use of color/tone to enhance detail and realism. Also known as First Concept.

8. Prescriptive Sketch

Informal sketch for the exploration of technical details such as mechanisms, manufacturing, materials and dimensions.

9. Scenario & Storyboard

Describes interactions between user and product, sometimes in an appropriate context.

10. Layout Rendering

Defines the product, proposals as a third angle orthographic projection with precise line and color.

11. Presentation rendering

Contains a high level of realism to fully define product appearance as a perspective view. Particularly useful for decision making by non-designers.

12. Diagram

Schematic representation of the operating principle of relationship between components. Also knows as a Schematic or Diagrammatic Drawing.

13. Perspective drawing

Descriptive three-quarter view produced using a perspective drawing technique. Created using line only without the application of color or tone.

14. Gen. Arrangement Drawing

Exterior view all components using line only and with sufficient detail to produce an Appearance Model if required. Usually drawn in third angle projection.

15. Detail Drawing

Contains detail of components for the manufacturing product. Also known as Technical, Production or Construction Drawing.

16. Technical Illustration

Communicates technical detail with a high degree of realism that is sometimes supported with symbols. Includes Exploded views.

17. Sketch Model

Informal, relatively low definition 3D model that captures as the key characteristics of form. Also known as a Foam Model for 3D Sketch.

18. Design Development Model

Simple mock-up used to explore and visualize the relationships between components, cavities, interfaces, and structures. Usually produced using CAD.

19. Functional Model

Captures the key functional features and underlying operating principles. Has limited or no association with the product's final appearance.

20. Operational Model

Communicates how the product is used with the potential ergonomic evaluation.

21. Appearance Model

Accurate physical representation of product appearance. Also known as a Block Model as it tends not to contain any working parts.

22. Assembly Model

Enables the evaluation and development of the methods and tools required to assemble products components.

23. Production Model

Used to evaluate and develop the location and fit a of individual components and sub-assemblies.

24. Service Model

Supports the development and demonstration of how a product is services and maintained.

25. Experimental Prototype

Refined prototype that accurately models physical components to enable the collection of performance data for further development.

26. Alpha Prototype

Bring together key elements of appearance and functions for the first time. Uses of simulates production materials.

27. Beta Prototype

A refined evolution of an Alpha Prototype used to evaluate ongoing design changes in preparation for the final specification of all components.

28. Systems Prototype

Integrates components specified for the production item without consideration of the appearance. used to evaluate electronic and mechanical performance.

29. Final Hardware Prototype

Developed from the Systems Prototype as a final representation of the product's functional elements.

30. Off-Tool Component

Product using the tooling and materials intended for production to enable the evaluation of material properties and appearance of components.

31. Appearance Prototype

Highly detailed representation that combines functionality with exact product appearance. Uses or simulates production materials.

32. Pre-Production Prototype

Final prototype produced using production components. Manufactures in small volumes for testing prior to full scale production.
Dr. Mark Evans, Loughborough Design School, UK, with support from IDSA