1.     Introduction

Industrial design is continuously changing and evolving. In recent years, this change has included the integration of methods from adjacent and complementary disciplines, resulting in the expansion of knowledge and skillset. A traditional approach to industrial design focused on developing mass-produced products is no longer enough to satisfy the needs of the profession. While physical interaction remains as a key component of the process, many products out in the market also include intangible digital interfaces. This tendency is obvious in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) products such as computers, tablets and mobile devices but it is also prevalent in products not considered hi-tech. From lightbulbs to measuring spoons and wastebaskets, and everything in between, more and more consumer products contain circuit boards and electronic components that improve their productivity and connectivity. This dramatic change in the marketplace urges industrial design to adapt itself and to address needs for systems that address user experience at multiple levels, involving tangible and intangible components. These systems need to provide the user with multiple layers of products, services and environments that work together to address (...more)